The Primary Purpose of Education: Critical Thinking versus Knowledge - ft

Science Insights Education, 24 July 2016
Volume 2016
Doi: 10.15354/sie.16.ar001
The Primary Purpose of Education: Critical Thinking versus Knowledge
Peiling Jiang, MEd;* Yan Su, MEd *,∆
Author Affiliations
            *: China Center of Education (CCE), The BASE, Beijing 102200, China
            ∆: Correspondence to: Dr. Yan Su, MEd, Email:  
Sci Insigt Edu. 2016; 2016:e00033. Doi: 10.15354/sie.16.ar001



Education is the source of enlightenment of mind of an individual and primary education is the first step of education process. Education is thing that makes man civilized and sophisticated. Primary education is the basics of study that make the foundation of concepts which reside in mind of an individual. Whatever person read in primary education helps him in getting further concepts and knowledge. Knowledge means getting from facts, education, information, obser-vations and experience, what a person learns from this. Critical thinking means evaluating, analyzing, conceptualizing the concepts what you get from knowledge. So both knowledge and critical thinking are important and comple-ment of each other’s. In primary education one must have focus to get learning as much as he can additionally utilizing his critical thinking ability analyze and assess whether what he getting is true or false. So critical thinking must be pro-moted in primary education as it helps one to use more its mind and judge things according to his critical thinking. As primary education makes a significant impact on mind of an individual so the introduction of critical thinking at early stage of education have significant impact on personality and minds of people. From one thing one can explore more by using their intellectual skills and brainstorming by them. So at primary education level knowledge with critical thinking is an essen-tial part of education.■

Keywords: Education; Primary Goal; Knowledge; Thinking; Future



Education makes significant impact on life of a person. Education is the source of making individual more civilized and presentable in front of society. The purpose of education has evolved according to the needs of society. Education's main persistence has extended from inculcating youth in religious policy, making to live in a democracy, to integrating refugees into normal society, to making workers for the developed 20th century workstation. As society is make from culture so culture has significant impact on learning. Society for sure does not exist in vacuum. There is certain culture, values, ethics, events, behaviors, activities, accomplishments etc. which make the environment of particular university to work and it’s also effects stakeholders like students, teachers, staff etc. “Learning culture refers to the approaches, values and way of performing that are shared by people who work or study in universities for example, professors, researchers and students" (1). There are numerous diverse points of view on this topic, says Jonathan Cohen, cofounder and head of the National School Climate Center. "I think that my opinion, and most people's opinion, is that the resolve of education is to care children in evolving the services, the knowledge, and the natures that will allow them to be liable, contributing affiliates of their communal their dem-ocratically knowledgeable communal. Significance, a good friend, a good mate, able to work, and to add to the well-being of the communal." Primary education makes significant impact as individual starts from that point and continues with that whatever he learns or get at that level. At this level what person starts learn or processes which he uses at this level will be continue with him at end with no or less changes expected. And what he learns at low or primary level will be difficult to change at next levels. So primary level have its own significance as its form the ba-sis of next coming concepts. Introduction of creative and brainstorming tasks make essential and remarkable effect on thought process and abilities of person as he or she have different way of evaluating and judging things. This all due to their usage of critical thinking ability. However describing the assurances of an education, Arthur Holmes (1987) planned that one blot is the presence of rational qualities in which a student holds a extent of empathetic, candidness to new concepts, rational honesty about others’ sights and about snags in one’s particular, logical and crit-ical skills. Primary education is intended to encounter the rudimentary learning necessities of students. It is also en-visioned to make students to value from secondary educa-tion. In charge with this comprehensive goal, essential in-struction is outfitted towards empowering students to cre-ate vital learning aptitudes and giving them fundamental learning content. The Primary level of the education framework cooks to a great extent to student’s matured five to twelve. An arrangement of programmed advance-ment sees students moving regardless of capacity from essential to optional school after accomplishing the age of twelve. The level of substance picked up ought to likewise furnish them with the imperative learning, qualities and states of mind for auxiliary instruction. At the essential level, there are particular goals and instructing prerequi-sites to encourage the achievement of the expansive point of essential training. One target revolves around the re-quirement for elementary schools to work in organization with the home and the group. This underlines the indis-pensable significance of dynamic Parents-Teachers’ Asso-ciation (PTAs) and the contribution of guardians and the group in certain curricular and additional curricular exer-cises. Reception of some schools by conspicuous business places and granting of grants to promising and penniless understudies by fruitful individuals from society must not go unmentioned either. Primary education should provide the learner with opportunities to: obtain knowledge, skill, and originality, communication abilities and when the crit-ical thinking is involved at primary level it will definitely give individual an edge over others as when they get knowledge they have their own skills and analyzing abili-ties to conceptualize things. Critical thinking is necessary at that level. With this one can enjoy learning and ripen desire to endure learning because he have thirst for know-ing and exploring things as it gives intellectual advance-ment to that person. It develops ability for critical thinking and rational decision because of using these things at very primary level he may not accept things as they are existing. He judges them over logics and realities. One can develop into a self-disciplined, organized, physically suitable and fit person as one will not face depressions which is due to lack of critical thinking, people lacking this always get things as they are and when faces any challenges they may not justify their understandings, which may force them to direct their thinking on useless or unconstructive ideas. It also develops artistic values and escalates own and other people's cultures because one has logical reasoning of happenings. He may justify things on standards. It devel-ops cognizance and gratitude of the atmosphere as critical thinking makes them person who see the happenings cause and effect relationships. This makes them more confident and aware from environment. It advance mindfulness of and gratitude for other realms and global community im-part admiration and love for particular nation and the es-sential for pleasant co-existence in world. This helps per-son to warmly accept other beliefs or settings that helps them to be social with every community. It matured dis-tinct aptitudes because critical thinking at primary level makes person more talented and more intelligent. It pro-motes societal duty and makes good use of relaxation time. This makes people to use their time on constructive activi-ties and develop new things. This make people keep ex-ploring, innovating things. So there must be mix of knowledge and critical thinking which must be introduced at this level for making minds more useable and trend set-ters as they thinks more and are logical. Primary education is the basic milestone in making the personality of a per-son.


Critical thinking is the mentally taught procedure of effec-tively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, breaking down, orchestrating, and/or assessing data assembled from, or produced by, perception, practice, replication, thinking, or correspondence, as a manual for conviction and move-ment. In its excellent structure, it depends on general scholarly values that rise above topic divisions: clarity, exactness, accuracy, consistency, significance, sound con-firmation, great reasons, profundity, expansiveness, and decency. One generally referred to significance of funda-mental Intuition is the "sensible and intelligent imagining that is centered around choosing what to accept or do" (2). Others have endeavored to characterize basic intuition by distinguishing its trademark abilities. For instance, Thompson (2001) depicted basic deduction as "the inclina-tion what's more, expertise to take part in an action with intelligent doubt concentrated on choosing what to sensi-bly accept or do". Others endeavor to portray basic specu-lation by laying out its angles and shapes, which include: "the utilization of rationale, the basic soul, dialogical thinking, and evaluation of criteria, the relationship of substance, [and] minding and associations with feedback" (3). With such a slippery definition, it has turned out to be very simple for a wide range of attributes to go as basic considering. Albeit every definition gives some clarity and knowledge on a specific part of the nature and procedure of basic considering, the absence of by and large acknowl-edged significance makes it troublesome for instructors to comprehend the instructive objective for which they are endeavoring. With the end goal of this article, basic deduc-tion is characterized as the capacity of one to sensibly and brilliantly deciphers, examine, induce, and assess a cir-cumstance keeping in mind the end goal to react. As Brookfield (1987) and others campaigned the requirement for the improvement of basic considering aptitudes, the collection of examination that assessed the pedagogical practices that encouraged basic deduction abilities among students developed. In a broad study on the best practices of fruitful schoolteachers, Bain (2004) proposed that the best teachers in primary education make basic thinking a critical learning objective in their courses. Those educators frequently endeavor to finish that objective by helping their learners draw in with charming issues, while all the while encountering disequilibrium in their routine methods for considering. Alongside Bain, different studies recom-mended that the improvement of basic intuition abilities was connected to instructive practices that included writ-ten work concentrated on blend, modifying that took after the gathering of companion audits, and the sum and pro-fundity of class dialog (4). Notwithstanding the act of basic addressing, situations that energize dynamic learning, create psychological and passionate pressure, and strengthen the need to distinguish sufficient thinking also, proof to bolster a thought add to basic intuition abilities (5). With the progression of the advanced age, it has ended up important to consider how basic intuition can be taught in an e-learning environment. The underlying exploration around there shows that the development of basic thor-oughly considering online settings happens when there is adequate cooperation between three segments: sensible parts of substance, intelligence (e.g., talks, email, gather-ings, and so forth.), and pedagogical outline (6). Inquire about too has shown that instructing basic deduction with the submersion approach, which endeavors to foster the capacity to think fundamentally when educating another topic without making basic thinking standards express, is the slightest viable methodology. The implantation ap-proach, the concurrent instructing of a topic and the ex-press utilization of basic speculation standards, and the general methodology, in which basic intuition is taught in a different course, are the best (7). Research recommends that learners grow better basic considering capacities when they are all the more unequivocally mindful of that specif-ic instructive objective in a course.


Realities, data and abilities gained through experience or training and the hypothetical down to earth comprehension of a subject. At the point when an example connection exists in the midst of the information and data, the exam-ple can possibly speak to information. It just gets to be information, in any case, when one can understand and comprehend the examples and their suggestions. The ex-amples speaking to information have an inclination to be more self-contextualizing. That is, the example tends, all things considered, to make its own setting as opposed to being connection ward to the same degree that data is. A design which speaks to learning likewise gives, when the example is comprehended, a high level of unwavering quality or consistency with respect to how the example will develop after some time, for examples are from time to time static. Designs that speak to learning have fulfill-ment to them that data essentially does not contain. Grade school training today is focused on building up the key proficiency and numeracy aptitudes of kids, and in addi-tion building up their comprehension of the world. These abilities are progressively fundamental for life in the cur-rent world, and are vital to the working of created econo-mies. Consequently, essential instruction is obligatory and gave by the state in all nations around the globe. The se-cond United Nations Millennium Development Goal was to “ensure that, by 2015, kids everywhere, youthful men and young ladies alike, will have the capacity to finish a full course of essential educating." This objective was missed however noteworthy advancement has been made. In 1999, just 81% of kids in the creating scene going to grade school, and today the figure is around 92% compa-rable to 58 million kids not in essential training. Knowledge is great and good thing for person as he grooms the personality of person. It makes person to get edge over others if one have much knowledge. It makes one stand able and confident among many peoples. At the point when astounding innovation instruction is gone for, great innovation educators are required. However, what do elementary teachers need to know with a specific end goal to end up high quality innovation instructors? Also, what are the perceptions and convictions that underlie educa-tors' conduct amid innovation exercises? To answer these inquiries, one needs to study the idea of educator’s learn-ing, which can be characterized as ''the entire of infor-mation furthermore, bits of knowledge that underlie edu-cators' activities practically speaking'' (8). Educator learn-ing controls an instructor's conduct in the classroom. It is close to home learning that is gained through encounters in his (or her) own particular instructing rehearsed. Addition-ally, it is somewhat unsaid learning, which suggests that an educator can't understandable piece of his gained edu-cator information. Besides, educator learning is incorpo-rated information, comprising of exploratory and also non-investigative components. Convictions are firmly inter-laced also; assume an imperative part in building and ar-ranging educator learning (9). Different terms have been utilized to portray the idea of educator information, e.g., 'make learning' (10) and 'handy information' (11). Gross-man (12) planned a model of educator information with four learning spaces: (i) topic information (SMK) (ii) gen-eral pedagogical learning (iii) information of the connec-tion, and (iv) pedagogical substance learning (PCK). In this model, PCK is exhibited as the focal space, which equally collaborates with the other spaces. Contradicted to this alleged 'transformative model', in which PCK is a change of various learning spaces into another and inter-esting area, the 'integrative model' does not present PCK as a learning space all alone. In the integrative model edu-cating is seen as a demonstration of coordinating learning of the subject, teaching method, and setting (13). Notwith-standing of the solid disentanglement of reality, both of these auxiliary models are valuable when considering in-structor learning. The transformative model of instructor information mirrors the position of this study.


Generally, religious foundations engendered formal in-struction as a method for spreading and saving their cus-toms and also preparing pastorate. In spite of the fact that schools and religious establishments existed much sooner than the nineteenth century, training was not necessary and, in the greater part of cases, expensive. Besides, the estima-tion of a kid's work implied that lone the wealthiest fami-lies could bear to teach their kids, a wonder that in any case exists in numerous creating nations today. Frederick William built up the most punctual widespread essential training framework in Prussia in 1717; it was enormously extended amid the principal half of the nineteenth Century and later replicated by other European countries and the US. While numerous nations went with the same pattern amid the twentieth century, others have been much slower at embracing the model of general instruction. India just passed laws presenting all inclusive, free and necessary training in 2009. There likewise still remain modest bunch nations that don't have laws making participation required. Advancing basic deduction is an essential objective in es-sential training focused for future information specialists in the United States (14). Basic deduction is a higher-request thinking expertise related with the capacity to think sensibly and brilliantly and choose what to accept or perform (15). Paul and Elder (16) characterized basic thinking as ''the mentally trained procedure of effectively conceptualizing, applying, dissecting, integrating, and as-sessing data assembled from perception, experience, re-flection, thinking or correspondence as a manual for con-viction and activity''. As the specialty of pondering an in-dividual's reasoning, i.e., a meta-subjective aptitude (16), basic intuition has been clarified in a wide range of ways for example, basic request, critical thinking, and subjective nearness (17, 18). With a specific end goal to cultivate basic considering, PC bolstered community learning's (CSCL) pedagogical advantages have been considered following the mid-1990s (19, 20). Especially inside online exchange gatherings, specialists have attempted to discov-er compelling instructional methodologies to enhance basic considering aptitudes (21, 22). Platform is viewed as a standout amongst the most vital methodologies for creat-ing higher-request thinking in online community learning situations (23). Framework is instructional help, for exam-ple, aides, techniques, and apparatuses, which makes a difference learner accomplish a more elevated amount of improvement than would be conceivable without the help (24). Critical thinking and knowledge both complement each other and in primary level both should be taught and learn so that we cope with this advancing world.


Primary level of education is important level of education and it must make difference in life of an individual. So with knowledge, critical thinking must be introduced at this level as it must give person more edge and able to ex-plore more.
•    Use mind more often. Judge things on merit
•    Try to get in the logics and accept things with rea-soning
•    Wherever conceivable take issues one by one. State the issue as clearly and conclusively as you can. 
•    Study the issue to explain the "kind" of issue you are managing. Make sense of, for instance, what sorts of things you must do to understand it. Rec-ognize Problems over which you have some con-trol from issues over which you have no control. Put aside the issues over which you have no con-trol, focusing your endeavors on those issues you can possibly understand. 
•    Figure out the data you require and effectively look for that data. 
•    Carefully investigate and decipher the data you gather, drawing what sensible deductions you can. 
•    Figure out your choices for activity. What would you be able to do in the short term? In the long haul? Recognize issues under your control from issues outside your ability to control. Perceive un-equivocally your confinements to the extent cash, time, and power. 
•    Evaluate your choices, considering their points of interest and inconveniences in the circumstance you are in. 
•    Adopt a vital way to deal with the issue and finish on that procedure. This may include direct activity or a painstakingly thoroughly considered sit back and watch system. 
•    When you act, screen the ramifications of your ac-tivity as they develop. Be prepared immediately to overhaul your system if the circumstance requires it. Be set up to move your technique or your ex-amination or articulation of the issue, or every one of the three, as more data about the issue gets to be accessible to you.


Analyzing and accepting the requirements of new era there must be innovations and revamps in existing old conven-tional methods. There must be innovations in pedagogy and teachings. At primary level knowledge must be mix with element of critical thinking so that there must be more innovative and independent minds in world. In the course of the most recent 40 years, the points and estima-tions of essential instruction in the six reviewed nations seem to have been driven basically by two thoughts: kid focused instruction; and social and financial advancement. Youngster focused theories were most emphatically showed in the points and estimations of essential instruc-tion in the 1960s and 1970s, at the point when there gave off an impression of being extraordinary idealism in the capacity of training to realize balance furthermore, social change. There must be synchronization between new transformation world and learning approaches so critical thinking and information must both be utilized and exe-cuted as a part of primary education level.



Author Affiliations: China Center of Education (CCE), The BASE, Beijing 102200, China.
Author Contributions: Mr. Yan Su had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: All authors.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Su.
Drafting of the manuscript: Jiang.
Critical revision of the manuscript for im-portant intellectual content: Su.
Statistical analysis: N/A.
Obtained funding: N/A.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Su.
Study supervision: Su.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors declared no competing interests of this manu-script submitted for publication.
Funding/Support: N/A.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: N/A.
How to Cite This Paper: Jiang P, Su Y. The primary purpose of education: Critical think-ing versus knowledge. Sci Insigt Edu. 2016;2016:e00033.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):
Article Submission Information: Received, June 7, 2016; Revised: July 01, 2016; Accepted: July 17 2016.



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